Online ISSN 2286-0266
Print ISSN 1223-0685
© 2022 Œconomica by ASE & SOREC
Octavian-Dragomir JORA
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
“Studiul tendinţelor actuale pentru a prognoza evoluţiile viitoare” – aşa sună definiţia economicoasă (cu un mic pleonasm de întărire) dată viitorologiei (engl., futurology) de Encyclopaedia Britannica. Viitorologia este (o ştiinţă?!) profund paradoxală. Pe de o parte, cu toată relativitatea spaţiu-timpului, viitorul va fi, la modul absolut, unul singur. Pe de altă parte, scrutarea viitorului, fireşte incert şi nedeterminist cum (nu) îl cunoaştem, face obiectul subiectivităţilor omeneşti, care mai sunt şi volatile diacronic. Simplificând tabloul, putem spune că există atâtea viitoruri imaginabile (nu neapărat şi posibile) câţi oameni care îşi bat capul cu vizualizarea lor, de înmulţit cu numărul mediu de asemenea momente de cugetare per individ, un produs din care se scad eventualele coincidenţe dintre perspective.

ŒCONOMICA nr. 4/2021
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
The paper tackles recent developments in the field of social behaviours of insects and swarm intelligence – “stigmergy”. Specifically, this paper aims to explore the paradigm of ant colony optimization from two main perspectives – economic and biological – so that we can attain a clear view about the genomic bases that allow ants to function as complex biological navigation systems.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Keywords: stigmergy, optimization, pheromone trails, the traveling salesman problem, stochastic mechanism
JEL: C60, C61, C69
Ant Colony Optimization: An Economic Transposition
Cristina Mariana ENE (VASILE)
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
The author starts from the notion of a deterministic, causality-based model with which we may analyse phenomena of the Romanian economy that finds itself under the impact of a couple of crises. The two years of pandemic have generated numerous dysfunctions and imbalances on various integrated markets. As we survey the Romanian business environment, their impact is visible.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Keywords: pandemic crisis, energy crisis, cost of utilities, bankruptcy, unemployment, inflation, investment
JEL: A12, D21, M13, M21
Energy Crisis and Entrepreneurial Failure [Criza energetică şi eşecul antreprenorial]
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
We argue about decoupling economic growth from the use of resources and passing to circular systems with regards to production and consumption which are essential for achieving climatic neutrality. The European Union has adopted a strategy in which the recovery from the pandemic crisis is to be used as a lever to create a European industry that is more dynamic, resilient and competitive.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Keywords: green economy, climatic economy, responsible consumption, circularity, sustainable products, innovation, clean Europe
JEL: Q01, Q50, Q51, Q54
Circularity – an Essential Component in the Transition Towards Climatic Neutrality [Circularitatea – componentă esenţială în tranziţia spre o neutralitate climatică]
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti

Regular definitions of classical banking would bring into discussion the products and services offered to clients, with a deep focus on business activities, but only limited consideration given to other processes such as risk management. In such a view, some investors or managers would be interested in the efficiency of activities, eliminating many of the supporting steps or controls in place.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Keywords: risk, operational risk, risk culture, mitigation action
JEL: A10, G30, G32
Main Categories of Operational Risks in Banking. Methods Used by Financial Institutions to Identify, Prevent and Mitigate Risk Events
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
This paper seeks to highlight how the post-pandemic crisis has brought to light an unpleasant reality of globalization, namely the deepening of inequality between people, especially among young people. In a global society, in which it was increasingly difficult to access education, the emergence of a virus that led to a pandemic has only rendered the problems of mankind into chronic, enduring issues.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Keywords: crisis, post-Covid effect, globalization, inequality, education
JEL: A12, F60, F62, F69, I24, I25
The Post-Covid Crisis and Its Effects on Education [Criza post-Covid şi efectele sale în educaţie]
Vasilica Mariana BIGEA
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a great deal of change in all respects and has revealed how prepared or unprepared the world economy is to meet such a challenge. Though not the only one to do so, Joseph Stiglitz has drawn attention to many of these economic challenges in a series of recent articles, drawing parallels of all these imbalances to those observed in the period 2008-2009.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Keywords: pandemic, inflation, poverty, polarization, bankruptcy, global warming, war
JEL: A12, F61, I31, I32, J60
Nobel Laureate, Joseph Stiglitz, On Economic Challenges after Covid-19 [Laureatul Nobel, Joseph Stiglitz, despre provocările economice după Covid-19]
Maria Ioana ANDREI
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureşti
The Romanian academic publishing market has recently gained a new volume bearing the title “Thirty Years since the End of the Cold War” [“30 de ani de la sfârşitul Războiului Rece”] at Editura ASE. This 435-page work was published under the supervision of Associate Professor Marius-Cristian Neacşu, Ph.D., alongside several other co-authors under the patronage of the Master’s Program in Geopolitics and Business.

ŒCONOMICA no. 4/2021
Book Review / Recenzie de carte: Marius-Cristian Neacşu (coord.), 30 de ani de la sfârşitul Războiului Rece, Bucureşti, Editura ASE, 2021